Please note: Text within images is not translated, some features may not work properly after translation, and the translation may not accurately convey the intended meaning. The next century came to be known as the period of the "Five Good Emperors", in which the succession was peaceful and the Empire prosperous. This close cooperation between popes and the Frankish kings would have far-reaching consequences. The imperial title had died temporarily in Italy, but it persisted north of the Alps. In 392 Valentinian II was murdered in Vienne. Hadrian's army crushed the Bar Kokhba revolt, a massive Jewish uprising in Judea (132–135). He also extended the borders of the empire, mostly done to help strengthen the frontier defenses, one of Vespasian's main goals. Lawyers for the emperors argued against the popes, saying that “he who is chosen by the election of the princes alone is the true emperor.” The emperors were generally chosen by this time through an election held by German princes. From this time the Holy Roman Empire was to be basically Germanic, though it maintained pretensions of rule over greater territory, including Italy. This flowered into the severe and perhaps pathological repercussions following the short-lived rebellion in 89 of Lucius Antonius Saturninus, a governor and commander in Germania Superior. Otto I did not claim the title of Roman emperor, but his descendants did. None of the three lived long enough to succeed him. Whether censorial powers were granted to Augustus as part of his tribunician authority, or he simply assumed those, is a matter of debate. The original Roman Empire ended in Italy and Western Europe in ad 476, when the last emperor—Romulus Augustulus—was deposed. The seven electors included three princes of the Church - the archbishops of Mainz, Triers, and Cologne - and four lay princes - the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of Rhine, the Margrave of Brandenburg, and the Duke of Saxony. The usurper Magnentius would continue to rule the Western Roman Empire until 353 while in conflict with Constantius. [76][12] The end of the late Empire is usually marked in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565)[77] or of Heraclius (AD 641).[78]. His stepson Tiberius had conquered Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily Germania for the Empire, and was thus a prime candidate. The younger son of Severus, Geta was made co-emperor with his older brother Caracalla upon his father's death. He renounced his consulship in 23 BC, but retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement. This event has been traditionally considered the fall of the Roman Empire in the west. The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent. The West Kingdom was composed largely of today’s France. The role of choosing a new Augustus fell again to army officers. The end came with Napoleon. His palace eventually became the core of the modern-day city of Split. Julian himself was not a traditional pagan. Being cautious, Augustus secured all territories west of Rhine and contented himself with retaliatory raids. There was no central government, no unity of language, no common system of law, no sense of common loyalty among the many states within it. The death of Valens left Gratian and Valentinian II as the sole Augusti. [51] Although advised to flee, he then attempted to reason with them, and was almost successful before being struck down by one of the soldiers. Although Frederick III was not particularly competent as a ruler, his marriage strategy proved successful. Conflicts continued for the following two years.

Other legions were united, a fact hinted by the title Gemina (Twin). Also included in Augustus's tribunician authority were powers usually reserved for the Roman censor; these included the right to supervise public morals and scrutinize laws to ensure they were in the public interest, as well as the ability to hold a census and determine the membership of the Senate. Trajan first invaded into Armenia. Procopius, a Cilician maternal cousin of Julian, had been considered a likely heir to his cousin but was never designated as such. The East Frankish Kingdom was Germanic. In 105 Trajan once again invaded and after a yearlong invasion ultimately defeated the Dacians by conquering their capital, Sarmizegetusa Regia.
Odoacer attacked Dalmatia, and the ensuing war ended with Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, conquering Italy under Zeno's authority. In 175, while on campaign in the northern Germany in the Marcomannic Wars, Marcus was forced to contend with a rebellion by Avidius Cassius, a general who had been an officer during the wars against Persia.

In addition, he often appeared in full military regalia as an imperator, an affront to the idea of what the Principate-era emperor's power was based upon: the emperor as the princeps. Valens led a campaign against them in 378. Most of what history remembers of Caligula comes from Suetonius, in his book Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Theodosius was left a widower in 385, following the sudden death of Aelia Flaccilla, his Augusta. He was crowned emperor by Pope John XII in 962. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many then surrounded themselves with thick walls. Geta was assassinated in his mother's apartments by order of Caracalla, who thereafter ruled as sole Augustus. It thereby set up a rivalry with Constantinople, a rivalry in which neither side had a real advantage. Through this sound fiscal policy, he was able to build up a surplus in the treasury and embark on public works projects. From Christmas Day in ad 800 until August 6, 1806, there existed in Europe a peculiar political institution called the Holy Roman Empire. The Roman provinces of Gaul, Britain and Hispania broke off to form the Gallic Empire and, two years later in 260, the eastern provinces of Syria, Palestine and Aegyptus became independent as the Palmyrene Empire, leaving the remaining Italian-centered Roman Empire-proper in the middle. The Praetorian Guard, however, acclaimed him as emperor. He also kept those forces wintered in Syria, where they became attracted to the young Elagabalus. Order was eventually restored by Constantine, who became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, and who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern empire. The weak and disunited German states were in no position to establish any kind of control, even within their own boundaries. Julian eventually resumed the war against Shapur II of Persia. Following Gratian's death, Maximus had to deal with Valentinian II, at the time only twelve years old, as the senior Augustus. Galerius became Caesar for Diocletian and Constantius Chlorus Caesar for Maximian. Diocletian (reigned 284–305) brought the Empire back from the brink, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or "lord". Over the next two decades the imperial structure fell apart in Italy. Trade routes covered the Roman Empire along with sea routes covering the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and many different land routes which used the roads that the Romans Trade had built. (2003) The Age of Augustus. 296–98. In 116, he captured the great city of Susa.
Scramuzza, Vincent (1940). Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World’s Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 63. After translating an article, all tools except font up/font down will be disabled. Born Varius Avitus Bassianus on 16 May 205, known later as M. Aurelius Antonius, he was appointed at an early age to be priest of the sun God, Elagabalus, represented by a large, dark rock called a baetyl, by which name he is known to historians (his name is sometimes written "Heliogabalus"). The Roman Empire at Bay. Contemporary historians have treated him as a controversial figure. The Tetrarchy would effectively collapse with the death of Constantius Chlorus on July 25, 306. The persecutions continued until Tiberius' death in 37.

The army had been left leaderless twice in less than a year, and the officers demanded Valentinian choose a co-ruler. He shared the consulship for several years with his father and received the best tutelage. The Augustan Age is not as well documented as the age of Caesar and Cicero. "Han Foreign Relations," in Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe (eds). Hussites within his kingdom, Sigismund was instrumental in resolving the Josephus's Jewish Antiquities is the important source for Judea,which became a province during Augustus's reign. They found allies in their opposition to the emperors, and by 1245 it was possible to depose Frederick II. Brown, P., The World of Late Antiquity, London 1971, p. 22.

Since then, the two great empires had shared hegemony of Armenia. His generosity in rebuilding after these tragedies made him very popular. Although there was some trepidation when he took office because of his known dealings with some of the less respectable elements of Roman society, he quickly proved his merit, even recalling many exiled by his father as a show of good faith.

Julian died childless and with no designated successor. The military and political anarchy created by this civil war had serious implications, such as the outbreak of the Batavian rebellion. In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in AD 180 marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron"[10]—a famous comment which has led some historians, notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire.

However, the newcomers faced problems from allegedly corrupted provincial commanders and a series of hardships. Herodian says "in their opinion Alexander showed no honourable intention to pursue the war and preferred a life of ease, when he should have marched out to punish the Germans for their previous insolence" (Herodian vi.7.10). He ordered a statue of himself to be erected in Herod's Temple at Jerusalem, which would have undoubtedly led to revolt had he not been dissuaded from this plan by his friend king Agrippa I.

[59][60] Julianus declared Severus a public enemy because he was the nearest of the three and, therefore, the most dangerous foe. His death in 1250 effectively ended the Holy Roman Empire of the Middle Ages.

He surrendered Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia, considering them to be indefensible.


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