In 1522, he prepared and published the first printed book of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, titled the Little Traveller's Book (Ruthenian language: Малая подорожная книжка). Today, approximately 60% of the city's population are Lithuanians, whilst 19% are Poles and 14% Russians. [192], The Lithuanian Tribunal, the highest appeal court for the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was established by Stephen Báthory, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, in 1581. [330], The Central Library of Vilnius City Municipality (Lithuanian: Vilniaus miesto savivaldybės centrinė biblioteka) operates public libraries in Vilnius. [384] The river rises in Belarus, connecting Vilnius and Kernavė, and becomes a tributary of Nemunas river in Kaunas. The largest and oldest is Vilnius University with 19,768 students. [254][255][256] The variety of nations in Vilnius was further increased by Grand Duke Vytautas the Great, who introduced Jews, Tatars, and Crimean Karaites. 1–2, articles in "Statyba ir architektūra", 1964, 11, "Statyba ir architektūra", 1973, 8, pp. [188] The present-day Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania is also located in Vilnius and meets at the Seimas Palace in Gediminas Avenue. Long-term unemployment fell to 2.1% in the third quarter of 2018 (EU average: 2.9%). For much of the Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania dominated a vast expanse of Eastern Europe. India, Africa) and introduced different cultures to Vilnians, who enjoyed the movies because very few were able to visit such far places. There are also a few private universities such as ISM University of Management and Economics, European Humanities University and Kazimieras Simonavičius University. Since then skyscrapers and expensive commercial offices are being built constantly in the area. [414], The first Lithuanian periodical newspaper (weekly) Kurier Litewski was published in Vilnius from 1760 to 1763. [90] Temperature records have been kept since 1777. Charming, very gentle guide. [99], At the late 18th and 19th centuries, the Lithuanian painting was largely influenced by the Vilnius Art School which introduced manifestations of Classicism art and later of Romanticism art. Major language: Lithuanian G. P. Perti, G. M. Galli, A. S. Capone) were exceptionally important in the 17th century Grand Duchy's sculptures development and were invited there by the Lithuanian nobility. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A number of Protestant and other Christian groups[350] are represented in Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the Baptists. [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] On 9 October 1920, the Polish Army surreptitiously, under General Lucjan Żeligowski, seized Vilnius during an operation known as Żeligowski's Mutiny. Vilnius City Municipality is one of 60 municipalities of Lithuania and includes the nearby town of Grigiškės, three villages, and some rural areas. The Soviets annexed Lithuania, including Vilnius, in June 1940. The Vilnians took care of the cleanliness and health responsibly already during the Grand Duchy of Lithuania times as the city had public bathhouses and one fourth of houses in Vilnius had individual bathhouses, also almost half of the houses had alcohol distilleries. [297], Vilnius Tech Park in Sapieha Park is the biggest information technology startup hub in the Baltic and Nordic countries and unites international startups, technology companies, accelerators, incubators. [367] About 18,000 burials have been made in the Bernardine Cemetery, established in 1810; it was closed during the 1970s and is now being restored. [149], Minorities (e.g. He delegated the management of the printing house to the Jesuits. [125], First stationary movie theater in Vilnius named Iliuzija (English: Illusion) was opened in 1905 and was located in Didžioji Street 60. Best Essay writing [358] The friars publicly preached the gospel and badmouthed Lithuanian gods. [382], The city is home to the Lithuanian Bandy Association, Badminton Federation, Canoeing Sports Federation, Baseball Association, Biathlon Federation, Sailors Union, Football Federation, Fencing Federation, Cycling Sports Federation, Archery Federation, Athletics Federation, Ice Hockey Federation, Basketball Federation, Curling Federation, Rowing Federation, Wrestling Federation, Speed Skating Association, Gymnastics Federation, Equestrian Union, Modern Pentathlon Federation, Shooting Union, Triathlon Federation, Volleyball Federation, Tennis Union, Taekwondo Federation, Weightlifting Federation, Table Tennis Association, Skiing Association, Rugby Federation, Swimming Federation.[383]. I was in Vilnius with thoughts and heart. Georges Méliès's movie A Trip to the Moon was first shown in the non-stationary Lukiškės Square movie theater in 1902 and was the first feature film shown in Vilnius. Walls paintings from the 16th centuries were also discovered in Vilnius (e.g. Many buildings in Vilnius are recognized as architectural monuments, but local authorities don’t take care of them properly, so the ancient buildings gradually decay and collapse. Most foreign visitors came from Belarus (102,915), Germany (101,999), Poland (99,386), Russia (90,388) and Latvia (61,829). [298] In 2019, the fDi Intelligence (an investment experts subdivision of the Financial Times) ranked Vilnius as number one city in the Tech Start-up FDI Attraction Index. [325] In 2018, the city had 120 schools (not including preschools) with 61,123 pupils and 4,955 educators. [177], Palm Sunday is widely celebrated in the district and the unique and colorful Vilnius' Easter palms (verbos) are made there from dried flowers and herbs. Due to the deterioration of the books, the State Grand Chancellor, Lew Sapieha, ordered the volumes of the Metrica to be recopied in 1594. [198], Vilniaus greitosios medicinos pagalbos stotis is responsible for emergency medical services in the city and can be contacted directly by calling a short number 033. Lithuania vigorously contested the Polish annexation of Vilnius, and refused diplomatic relations with Poland. The majority of the remaining population was compelled to move to Communist Poland by 1946, and Sovietization began in earnest. ", "Vilniuje vartus atvėrė restauruotas Bernardinų sodas", "Užupis Old Jewish Cemetery [Užupio Senosios Žydų Kapinės]", "Vilniaus miesto turizmo tyrimas ir turistų pasitenkinimo indeksas", "Apsipirkti į Lietuvą miniomis traukia ne eiliniai baltarusiai", "D. Matulionis: džiugu, kad pavyko sutarti mūsų valstybei ir Lietuvos žydų bendruomenei svarbiu klausimu", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Už prezidentinę naktį Vilniaus "Kempinski" – 3 tūkst.

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