Table 1-3. Criteria for selecting clinical substrates are as follows: This table is prepared to provide examples of clinical substrates for various transporters and not intended to be an exhaustive list. [48] The metabolic processes targeted by natural poisons encompass more than enzymes in metabolic pathways and can also include the inhibition of receptor, channel and structural protein functions in a cell. Irreversible inhibitors often contain reactive functional groups such as nitrogen mustards, aldehydes, haloalkanes, alkenes, Michael acceptors, phenyl sulfonates, or fluorophosphonates. Enzyme inhibitors are also important in metabolic control. (a) Strong inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Protein kinases are enzymes that add a phosphate (PO 4) group to a protein, and can modulate its function. (j) Also a substrate of BCRP. Abbreviations: Table 1-1: Examples of in vitro marker reactions for P450-mediated metabolism (9/26/2016). (d) S-lansoprazole is a sensitive substrate in CYP2C19 EM subjects. For example, some protein kinase inhibitors have chemical structures that are similar to adenosine triphosphate, one of the substrates of these enzymes.

A higher dose (400 mg/day) modafinil had larger induction effect on CYP3A. Index inhibitors listed in this table were selected based on potency and selectivity of inhibition, safety profiles, and adequate number of reported clinical DDI studies with different in vivo substrates [≥ 3 for CYP3A, ≥ 2 for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6, or ≥ 1 for CYP2C8 (strong inhibitors)]. Drug Interactions & Labeling, Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts, Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Possible Models for Decision-Making, Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers, Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Advisory Committee Meetings, Drug Interactions: Relevant Regulatory Guidance and Policy Documents, Preventable Adverse Drug Reactions: A Focus on Drug Interactions, and the list of references is available here, Phenacetin O-deethylation, 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, Efavirenz hydroxylation, Bupropion hydroxylation, Paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation, Amodiaquine N-deethylation, S-Warfarin 7-hydroxylation, Diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, Dextromethorphan O-demethylation, Midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, Testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, Sertraline, Phencyclidine*, Thiotepa*, Ticlopidine*, S-(+)-N-3-benzyl-nirvanol, Nootkatone, Ticlopidine*, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Azamulin*, Troleandomycin*, Verapamil*, alosetron, caffeine, duloxetine, melatonin, ramelteon, tasimelteon, tizanidine, clozapine, pirfenidone, ramosetron, theophylline, glimepiride, phenytoin, tolbutamide, warfarin, atomoxetine, desipramine, dextromethorphan , eliglustat, encainide, imipramine, metoprolol, propafenone, propranolol, tramadol, trimipramine, S-venlafaxine, alfentanil, avanafil, buspirone, conivaptan, darifenacin, darunavir, budesonide, dasatinib, dronedarone, eletriptan, eplerenone, felodipine, indinavir, methoxsalen, mexiletine ,oral contraceptives, acyclovir, allopurinol, cimetidine, peginterferon alpha-2a, piperine, zileuton, diosmin, disulfiram, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, abiraterone, cinacalcet, duloxetine, lorcaserin, mirabegron, amiodarone, celecoxib, cimetidine, clobazam, cobicistat, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, chlorzoxazone, cilostazol, cimetidine, clotrimazole, fosaprepitant, istradefylline, ivacaftor, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), Dabigatran etexilate, digoxin, fexofenadine, asunaprevir, atorvastatin, bosentan, danoprevir, docetaxel, amiodarone, carvedilol, clarithromycin, dronedarone, itraconazole, lapatinib, lopinavir and ritonavir, propafenone, quinidine, ranolazine, ritonavir, saquinavir and ritonavir, telaprevir, tipranavir and ritonavir, verapamil, atazanavir and ritonavir, clarithromycin, cyclosporine, erythromycin, gemfibrozil, lopinavir and ritonavir, rifampin (single dose), simeprevir, cimetidine, dolutegravir, isavuconazole, ranolazine, trimethoprim, vandetanib, Examples of clinical substrates, inhibitors, and inducers, Examples of clinical substrates, inhibitors and inducers.

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