Ready to take your reading offline? Advances in electronic and other information technologies have raised new questions about the customs and practices that influence the storage, ownership, and exchange of electronic data and software. 0000005693 00000 n Whether we're launching a space shuttle or trying to discover another Earth-like planet, we rely on scientific laws and theories to guide us. 12. Institutional policies are limited, however, in their ability to specify the details of every problematic situation, and they can weaken or displace individual professional judgment in such situations. 2. Another problem of lesser importance, except to the scientists involved, is the order of authors listed on a paper. (1990). • When a scientist communicates a set of results and a related piece of theory or interpretation in any form (at a meeting, in a journal article, or in a book), it is assumed that the research has been conducted as reported. There's no simpler way to put it: Science says that stress is the No. It need hardly be said that the latter behaviors are characteristic of superstars rather than team players. Individuals in positions of authority are visible and are also influential in determining funding and other support for the career paths of their associates and students. For example, theories derived from observations in the field of evolutionary biology lack a great deal of predictive power. They are required, for example, “to foster a research environment that discourages misconduct in all research and that deals forthrightly with possible misconduct” (DHHS, 1989a, p. 32451). ? In business, the main sources of stress are the sense that there's too much work to be done and a climate of fear based on the (often accurate) belief that management will punish failure. Theory of General Relativity. 1 enemy of success. Such conclusions are sometimes overturned by the original investigator or by others when new insights from another study prompt a reexamination of older reported data. Editors often request written assurances that research reported conforms to all appropriate guidelines involving human or animal subjects, materials of human origin, or recombinant DNA. Other forces, such as competition, commercial interest, funding trends and availability, or pressure to publish may also erode the role of replication as a mechanism for fostering integrity in the research process. Universities, independent institutes, and government and industrial research organizations create the environment in which research is done.

(Jan. 5, 2011), Stern, David P. "Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion."

Though that all sounds reasonable, it doesn't work in practice. The process of reevaluating prior findings is closely related to the formulation and testing of hypotheses.24 Indeed, within an individual laboratory, the formulation/testing phase and the reevaluation phase are ideally ongoing interactive processes. You can therefore make yourself and your company more successful by doing more of the 20 percent that really matters and less of the 80 percent that doesn't. It is a violation of the most fundamental aspect of the scientific research process to set forth measurements that have not, in fact, been performed (fabrication) or to ignore or change relevant data that contradict the reported findings (falsification). It is also possible, however, that the contradictory results are themselves incorrect, and this possibility will also be evaluated by the scientists working in the field. Kennesaw State University. In recent. Verifiable facts always take precedence. endstream endobj 1981 0 obj<> endobj 1983 0 obj<> endobj 1984 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>/Pattern<>>> endobj 1985 0 obj<>stream 1998. Buoyancy keeps everything from rubber ducks to ocean liners afloat. Martin et al. Some institutions, such as Harvard Medical School, have responded to these problems by limiting the number of publications reviewed for promotion.
(Jan. 5, 2011), Weisstein, Eric W. "Kepler's Laws." Government agencies have developed specific rules and procedures that directly affect research practices in areas such as laboratory safety, the treatment of human and animal research subjects, and the use of toxic or potentially hazardous substances in research. Scientific meetings routinely include poster sessions and press conferences as well as formal presentations. Scientific experiments and measurements are transformed into research data. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. (Jan. 5, 2011), Nave, C.R. A copy of the full paper, “Mentorship and the Research Training Experience,” is included in Volume II of this report. Having a strong, meaningful story creates a sense of community. selves were carefully and correctly performed. of the importance of giving credit to the accomplishments of others are the same. "Understanding Evolution: An introduction to evolution." This topic, in particular, could benefit from further research and systematic discussion to clarify the rights and responsibilities of research investigators, institutions, and sponsors. However, groundbreaking research by emeritus business professor and author Robert B. Cialdini indicates that cheating generates huge hidden costs, even when leaders think they're getting away with it. And the British physicist and sociologist of science John Ziman, in an article synthesizing critiques of Merton's formulation, has specified a set of structural factors in the bureaucratic and corporate research environment that impede the realization of that particular set of norms: the proprietary nature of research, the local importance and funding of research, the authoritarian role of the research manager, commissioned research, and the required expertise in understanding how to use modern instruments (Ziman, 1990). The dynamics of research groups can foster —or inhibit—innovation, creativity, education, and collaboration. The standards and criteria used to monitor institutional compliance with an increasing number of government regulations and policies affecting research practices have been a source of significant disagreement and tension within the research community. For example, some journalists have criticized several prominent scientists, such as Mendel, Newton, and Millikan, because they “cut corners in order to make their theories prevail” (Broad and Wade, 1982, p. 35). of Physics & Astronomy. For the past few decades, many companies … 1982 0 obj<>stream of scientists by demonstrating and discussing methods and practices that are not well understood. See, for example, responses to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences action against Friedman: Hamilton (1990) and Abelson et al. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process: Volume I, 2 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND RESEARCH PRACTICES, 4 MISCONDUCT IN SCIENCE - INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE, 5 HANDLING ALLEGATIONS OF MISCONDUCT IN SCIENCE - INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES AND EXPERIENCE, 6 STEPS TO ENCOURAGE RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH PRACTICES, A: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PANEL MEMBERS. The power of the disciplines to shape research practices and standards is derived from their ability to provide a common frame of reference in evaluating the significance of new discoveries and theories in science. It is not unusual that experimental flaws or errors of interpretation are revealed as the scope of an investigation deepens and broadens. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. The coupling of science to other social purposes in fostering economic growth and commercial technology requires renewed vigilance to maintain acceptable standards for disclosure and control of financial or competitive conflicts of interest and bias in the research environment. For a full discussion of the roles of scientific societies in fostering responsible research practices, see the background paper prepared by Mark Frankel, “Professional Societies and Responsible Research Conduct,” in Volume II of this report. (1991). endstream endobj 1998 0 obj<>stream Peer review is the process by which editors and journals seek to be advised by knowledgeable colleagues about the quality and suitability of a manuscript for publication in a journal. Currently, academic institutions have very few formal policies and programs in specific areas such as authorship, communication and publication, and training and supervision. Angell (1983) advocates closer coordination between institutions and editors when institutions have ascertained misconduct. Science changes. But the responsibilities of the research community and research institutions in assuring individual compliance with scientific principles, traditions, and codes of ethics are not well defined. Institutional policies governing research practices can have a powerful effect on research practices if they are commensurate with the norms that apply to a wide spectrum of research investigators. For a somewhat dated review of codes of ethics adopted by the scientific and engineering societies, see Chalk et al. Such systems are also a source of additional research expense, often borne by individual investigators. These in turn depend on available technology, the use of proper statistical and analytical methods, and the skills of the investigator.

It is the members of a discipline, for example, who determine what is “good biology” or “good physics” by examining the implications of new research results. In order to foster good mentorship practices for all research trainees, many groups and institutions have taken steps to clarify the nature of individual and institutional responsibilities in the mentor–trainee relationship.27. Varying historical and conceptual perspectives also can affect expectations about standards of research practice. But this situation operates only under conditions of freely available information and unconstrained choice —conditions that usually do not exist in academic research groups. (Jan. 5, 2011), Weisstein, Eric W. "Gravitational Constant." But what does that mean? The role of individuals in influencing research practices can vary by research field, institution, or time. Scientific societies and scientific journals, some of which have tens of thousands of members and readers, and the peer review processes used by journals and research sponsors are visible forms of the social organization of the disciplines. Some students or junior staff encourage such “gift authorship” because they feel that the inclusion of prestigious names on their papers increases the chance of publication in well-known journals.

Some questions about communication and publication that arise from large science projects such as the Superconducting Super Collider include: Who decides when an experiment is ready to be published? The panel defined a mentor as that person directly responsible for the professional development of a research trainee.25 Professional development includes both technical training, such as instruction in the methods of scientific research (e.g., research design, instrument use, and selection of research questions and data), and socialization in basic research practices (e.g., authorship practices and sharing of research data). (Jan. 5, 2011), Matson, Ronald H. "Scientific Laws and Theories." Appropriate recognition for the contributions of junior investigators, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students is sometimes a source of discontent and unease in the contemporary research environment. (Jan. 5, 2011), University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP). }�\C�|�@.� �

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